Whenever we select any statement it dosen't filter duplicate values; to remove duplicate values use DISTINCT keyword. For example, if we want to get all distinct list of cities we use below query.
Keyword TOP allows to limit the number or percentage of rows returned by a query. It works with ORDER BY clause to limit rows by sort order. Below are the sample syntaxt with SELECT clause.
Below are the some examples of it.
Sql server 2012 added new keywords to simplify paging, which are OFFSET and FETCH. OFFSET-FETCH is an extension to the ORDER BY clause. OFFSET keyword specifies number of rows to skip, and FETCH specifies number of rows to take. Below is syntax of it.
Below are the examples of OFFSET-FETCH.
Predicates and filtering are performed using WHERE keyword. It is the most essence of SQL querying. Below table lists predicates and operators.
|Predicates and Operators||Description|
|=<>||Compares values for equality / non-equality.|
|IN||Determines whether a specified value matches any value in a subquery or a list.|
|BETWEEN||Specifies an inclusive range to test.|
|LIKE||Determines whether a specific character string matches a specified pattern, which can include wildcards.|
|OR||Combines two Boolean expressions and returns TRUE if either is TRUE.|
|NOT||Reverses the result of a search condition.|
I dosen't go in details of these predicates, but below list of examples explaines itself.